Victorian Spirit Rapping

I was doing a little research on Victorian spiritualism a few weeks ago when I came across something called “spirit rapping.”  Curious, I ran a search on the subject and found Spirit Rapping Unveiled! published in 1855 and written by Hiram Mattison, a rather sexist skeptic of Victorian occult practices. Since we are approaching Halloween, I thought I would share an excerpt and some creepy old images that I found on Flickr.

The “rapping process” is in some respects the most important of all. It was by mere ” raps,” heard in ” the Fox family,” that this “new era” of ghosts was introduced. But it was not long before the spirits “called for the alphabet.” By what rap or raps they signified “alphabet” to the young misses, we know not. Indeed, it would be very difficult for a dumb man, or one who could not speak a word of English, to make known by sounds a wish to have the alphabet called over. His only mode would be to get a spelling-book, and point to the letters. But these very tractable “Foxes” could tell at once, by mere raps, that the spirits wanted the alphabet called over. And the same intuition enabled them to understand that, with the spirits, one rap meant no, and three raps yes.

*When the spirits went to Philadelphia, “arrangement was made with them that one rap should signify no, three yes, and two a medium between yes and no.”—History of Recent Development, &c., in Philadelphia, by “a Member of the first circle,” p. 22.

To arrange for the rappings, the following conditions must be observed:

1. There should be twelve persons in the circle:

“As there are twelve elements and attributes in every human soul, abstractly considered, so should there be twelve persons constituting a circle; the twelve consisting of six males and six females.”—Spirit of J. R. Fulmer—Telegraph, No. 26.

2. One of the circle, at least, must be a ” medium.”

“Jn order to have spiritual manifestations, it is necessary that a medium be present.”—Phil. Hist., p. 11.

“Though the presence of a medium is necessary for the production of the sounds, he or she cannot control them. Sounds cannot always be produced in the presence of a medium; there are other conations required. But all the other conditions may be as favorable as possible, yet the sounds cannot be produced without a medium.”—Ibid., 13.

3. We are told that “positive and negative persons must be placed alternately in arranging the circle.”*

“There is A peculiar electrical condition that is necessary for the production of sounds or raps.”—Phil Hist., p. 11.

“It is essential that circles be always organized upon positive and negative principles. Let the person whose electrical temperament is usually indicated by cold hands, and who possesses a mild and loving disposition, take his or her place on the immediate right of the medium or clairvoyant, upon whose immediate left should be seated one of a magnetic or warm physical temperament, being a positive and intellectual individual,” &e.—Tel., No. 26.

*It is impossible for two persons to be one positive, and the other negative, unless they are separated by a non-conductor. As positive means simply having more electricity, and negative less, and bodies are positive and negative in reference to each other relatively; and inasmuch, also, as electrical equilibrium is produced the instant the two bodies of different electrical states are connected by any conducting substance, it follows that two persons standing upon a floor, or the earth, or anything but glass, cannot be the one positive, and the other negative. However, such philosophy will do to help keep up appearances, and cover the deception and trickery of the spirit-rappers.

4. To succeed well in getting raps, &c., the room in which the circle are in session should be made dark. “Put out the lights.”

“I am impressed to further direct that the rooms where the circles meet should, as much as possible, be retired from noise and interruption; that they should also be darkened, so that the persons present, not having their minds attracted and diverted by external things, may the more easily concentrate their thoughts upon the object for which they have met together.”—Spirit of J.Ji. Fulmer—Tel. 26.

5. There is an intimate connection, it seems, between the character and “condition” of the ” medium,” and the character of the communications:

“The character of the communications depends very much on the condition of the medium. A high order of communication cannot be obtained through, or in the presence of a low medium; neither can low communications be received in the presence of a high medium. It is the physical condition of the medium that favors the production of sounds or raps; but it is the intellectual and moral conditions that give character to the intelligence connected with the sounds, manifestations, or communications.”—Phil. Hist., p. 11.

6. The “medium” must give herself entirely up to the control of the spirits; that is, abandon herself to her imagination, if not to anything else that may occur. This “giving up wholly to the control of the spirits,” is so universally insisted upon that it is scarcely necessary to cite authorities.

“In order to prepare a medium, the person must give up all self-control, all resistance, and resign him or herself to the entire direction and control of the spirits. Sometimes the process of preparation or development is easy and quick, at other times it is protracted and difficult; but it is always rendered more easy and quicker of accomplishment, by perfect resignation and entire non-resistance.”—Phil. Hist., p. 11.

7. It is quite important that no “materialists” or “skeptics” be present. “None but the candid, honest, truth-seeking inquirers should be admitted.” “The captious and sneering should be excluded” (Phil. Hist., p. 28); that is, let no person be admitted who has any doubts, or who will be likely to detect and expose the deception. This is probably the most important “condition” of all.

*What a beautiful “philosophy” this is, and how congenial with the views and practices of a certain class. It not only mingles males and females, “positives and negatives,” in the same circle; but excludes the “skeptics,” inculcates “entire non-resistance,”and then puts out the lights.

8. Although we believe it is not always regarded, yet the direction of the “spirits” is, that in all cases the “medium” should repeat the alphabet.

“Always let the medium repeat the alphabet.”—Spirits to circle in Phil. Hist, p. 26.

Everything being arranged, the “circle” take their seats at the table, darken the room, and in due time the “rappings” begin.

In the cut, the lady “medium” sits on the right, with her “secretary” behind her in the background. The members of the circle look (as they should) very “impressible;” and quite “negative,” both as to “electricity” and common sense. And the gentleman who has just paid his admission fee, and is about to enter the circle, is obviously sufficiently ” honest” and “truth seeking” for all practical purposes.

The raps being heard, the medium inquires if the spirit of such a one is present. Rap, rap, rap, (yes). “Will the spirit of communicate with us?” Rap, rap, rap. “Shall we call over the alphabet?” Rap, rap, rap. The medium then begins, “a, b, c, d,” &c., till she comes to the first letter of the first word wanted by the spirit, when a “rap” is heard, and that first letter is recorded by the “secretary.” The medium then goes back to “a” again, and proceeds down the list till she comes to the next letter wanted, when another rap is heard, and this second letter is recorded; and so on, letter after letter, and word after word, till the whole communication is obtained.

“A member of the first circle” in Philadelphia, describes this process as follows:

“The first mode is performed by having the alphabet repeated by some person (the medium is preferred); this should be done slowly and distinctly, with a pause between each letter; and when the letter is arrived at which the spirit communicating desires, there will be heard a rap, more or less distinctly, the letter responded to; it must be set down, and the alphabet again commenced and repeated, and in like manner will the desired letter be responded to. This process is repeated again and again, until words are formed, and from these sentences are constructed. The sentence when finished will usually conclude with the word ‘done.’ These sentences will give what the spirit wishes to communicate. This mode of communication is very slow, tedious, imperfect,” &c—History, p. 47.

To ascertain precisely how ” slow” and ” tedious” this method of spirit telegraphing is, the following plan was adopted: The writer requested a friend (Rev. Mr. Avars, of the New Jersey Conference) to act as “medium” in calling over the alphabet, while he (the writer) acted the part of the “spirits” by rapping at the letter desired; and the following was first written out and then communicated from the writer to Mr. Ayars by spirit-rapping:

“My Dear Friends: I am glad of an opportunity of communicating with you.” Mr. Ayars began, “a—b—c—d—e— f—g—h—i—j—k—1—m” (rap). Again: “a—b—c—d—e —f—g—h—i—j—k—1—m—n—o—p—q—r—s—t—u—v w—x—y” (rap). We had then the word “My;” and in this way we proceeded through the sentence.

Now this short sentence, of only thirteen words, or fifty-six letters, took us full fifteen minutes to get it rapped out, even with the message written out beforehand, so that the “spirit” could see the letter desired, and rap as soon as it was named. And there was scarcely any “pause between each letter,” as the rappers say there should be, and as is very necessary in order that the “rap” may be made at the right letter; so that it was got through faster than ordinary spirit messages can be telegraphed by rapping. But even this rapid process gives us only 240 letters per hour. If any man thinks he can rap out messages letter by letter at a faster rate, let him try the experiment, and he will be convinced of his mistake.

Now let us apply this fact to the communications that it is said have been rapped out by the spirit? on various occasions, and it will be found that instead of being given at a “sitting,” as they profess to have been, many of them must have required from five to thirty hours! They must, therefore, have been obtained or composed in some other way than by being rapped out letter by letter, as the rappers pretend.

Another fact worthy of note, is, that the rapping media, have up to this time been, and still are, nearly all ladies. A gentleman “rapping medium” has seldom, if ever been heard of. No Mr. “Foxes,” or Mr. ” Fishes,” but in all cases ladies. Why is this? Have the spirits a stronger “electrical affinity” for ladies than for gentlemen? Or is it because ladies would, for certain reasons, be less liable to detection and exposure? Whether the “spirits” think of it or not, we mortals know that their sex and costume is a fine security against detection. And may not this be the reason why most of the raps are made through lady mediums?

It is also somewhat remarkable that all the “spirits,” Hebrew, Greek, Roman, French, German, and Irish, rap in English. The second number of the Mountain Cove Journal contains a message said to have been received August 5th, 1852, from the spirit of the man healed by Peter and John, Acts iii. 1-9; and yet, though nothing is more certain than that this “spirit” never heard a word of English in all his life, he now raps out his thoughts in English. In a few instances only have the spirits intimated that they understood other languages than that of the mediums. On one occasion a spirit gave a message in Hebrew, by raps, Prof. Bush calling over the alphabet (which message for some cause was carefully suppressed), and in another case, where a departed “spirit” in New York had made four grand mistakes, in regard to his age, when he died, and the time, place, and circumstances of his death, the lady medium said the error arose from the fact that the spirit responding to the inquiries was the spirit of an Indian, who did not understand the English language! But with a few exceptions the spirits all rap in English—a very significant circumstance in regard to the real origin of the “intelligence.”

Now admitting that we know not the origin of the sounds, any further than it is indicated by circumstances, we have enough already before us to show beyond a doubt, that they originate in the medium herself. There must be one medium, i. e., one person who knows how to rap, and has no conscientious scruples upon the subject. She must be a lady, to prevent scrutiny and detection. The room must be darkened and “skeptics” excluded for the same reason. The alphabet must be called over by the medium, because she knows what she wishes to “communicate,” and when she names the letter she wants, can the more easily rap at the right letter. And the “spirits” know no language except that of the medium, and the “messages” are just as sensible as the medium is, and no more so. A high order of communications cannot be obtained through a low (i. e., an ignorant) medium; and to this we may add the fact, which any one can demonstrate for himself, that many of the communications are of such a length that they could not have been rapped out letter by letter, in the time specified. It is certain, therefore, that many of them, at least, were written by the media at their leisure, without even a “rap” from any spirit embodied or disembodied.


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Nursing Your Regency Infant

Two blog posts in two days! Can you tell that I’m procrastinating? I found this little article “Management of Children” in the British journal The Housekeeper’s Magazine, and Family Economist published in 1826.

I’ve included pictures of feeding bottles and a breast pump found at the British Science Museum. Do browse their fascinating collection of Nursing and Hospital Furnishings.

The paintings are by French artist Marguerite Gerard.

Nothing is more absurd than dosing the infant with medicine of any kind immediately on its entrance into the world. It is of importance to know, that in this early stage of infancy, drugs are wholly unnecessary, and often very improper, the first milk of the mother, which the child should be placed at the breast to obtain as soon as she has recovered by rest from the immediate fatigue of her labour, or a little thin gruel, with a small quantity of soft sugar, being all that is necessary to promote those evacuations which nature herself, in general, most faithfully ejects; the early application of the infant to the breast will besides cause the milk to be much sooner supplied, and more certainly prevent puerperal fever and inflammations of the breast, than any other method which can be adopted.

The health of women while suckling their infants is, in general, better than at any other period of their lives. But should their functions, from any cause whatever, be disturbed, the quantity or quality of the milk, or both, will be often very materially affected. The quality of the food and drink taken by the mother will also very materially affect her child; so also will medicine. Thus if a nurse eat garlick, her milk will become impregnated with it, and disagreeable. If she indulge too freely in wine or porter, the infant will become sick; and if a nurse take jalap or any other opening medicine, the infant will be purged; and such as are affected with gripes or pains in the bowels, are often cured by giving the nurse a larger proportion of animal food. The milk of a suckling woman may also be altered by the affections of the mind, such as anger, fear, grief, or anxiety.  In mothers as well as nurses, a good temper and an even mind are grand requisites in promoting the health of the child. The food of nurses should not be different from their ordinary food; but they in general eat and drink considerably more, and with greater relish, than at other times, which of course should not be denied to them.

During the first month, the infant should, if possible, receive its nourishment from its mother’s breast, not only as being beneficial to the infant, but also, by its discharge, to the mother herself. If, however, from peculiar circumstances, the mother cannot suckle her own child, a young woman should be chosen to do so whose milk is nearly of the same age as that of the mother. But no trifling consideration ought to induce any mother to abandon her offspring to be suckled by another, provided she has health and strength to do it herself.

An infant should be early accustomed to feeding, as it will thereby suffer less inconvenience on being weaned. It should be fed two or three times a day, and, if not suckled during the night, which some medical writers think is not necessary, it may require feeding once or twice during that period. We cannot, however, avoid remarking, that suckling during the night, at least for the first two or three months, is preferable to feeding.

An infant in health, and which has been brought to feed regularly, may be safely, and is best weaned at seven or eight months: it should seldom, if ever, be suckled more than ten. The period of weaning, however, must be regulated by the strength of the mother, as well as that of the infant. It should never be taken from the breast, if possible, before the end of the fourth month.

Should an infant, from accidental or other circumstances, be deprived of its food from the breast of its mother or nurse, a substitute for it must be supplied, and the closer we can imitate nature the better.  For this purpose, a sucking bottle should be procured, the mouth of which should be as wide as that of an eight-ounce phial, which is to be stopped with sponge covered with gauze, and made in size and shape to resemble a nipple. The following preparation is most suitable, as it comes nearest to the mother’s milk, and may be sucked through the sponge: On a small quantity of a crumb of bread, pour some boiling water; after soaking for about ten minutes, press it, and throw away the water, the bread by this process being purified from alum or other saline substances which it might contain; then boil it in as much soft water as will dissolve the bread, and make a decoction of the consistence of barley-water; to a sufficient quantity of this decoction, about a fifth part of fresh cows’ milk is to be added, and sweetened with the best soft sugar. After each feeding, the bottle and sponge should be carefully rinsed with warm water. As the infant advances in growth, the proportion of milk is to be increased, and that of the sugar lessened, until the stomach is able to digest simple bread and milk, Indian arrow-root, &c. In this way very fine children have been reared.

Blue and white transfer printed boat shaped infant’s feeding bottle, Crellin 33, English, 1801-1891.


Glass infant’s feeding bottle, boat-shaped.

Breast pump, late 18th or early 19th century. Front view.

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Working Out the Early Victorian Way

I came across this early Victorian wonderfulness today and had to share. The following can be found in Exercises for Ladies: Calculated to Preserve and Improve Beauty, and to Prevent and Correct Personal Defects, Inseparable from Constrained Or Careless Habits: Founded on Physiological Principles, by Donald Walker and published in London in 1836. 



The rod for this purpose should be light, smooth, inflexible, and need not be more than three or four feet in length.

The rod is first grasped near the extremities by the two hands, the thumbs being inward.— (See PLATE XII, fig. 1.) Without changing the position of the hands on the rod, it is then brought to a vertical position: the right hand being uppermost holds it above the head, the left is against the lower part of the body.By an opposite movement, the right is lowered and the left raised. This change is executed repeatedly and quickly.

From the first position of the rod, it is raised over the head; and, in doing so, the closer the hands are, the better will be the effect upon the shoulder.—(See PLATE XII, fig. 2.)
It is afterwards carried behind the back, holding so firmly that no change takes place in the position of the hands.—(See PLATE XII, fig. 3.)

This movement is then reversed, to bring it back over the head to the first position.

The same exercises are performed by grasping the stick with the hands in an opposite position; that is to say, with the thumbs in front or the palms of the hands forwards.—(See PLATE XIII, fig. 1.) It is raised parallel with the shoulders, extending it first on the left and then on the right arm.

It is next raised above the head, the hands being still in their new position.—(See PLATEXIII, fig. 2.) It is afterwards lowered behind the back.— (See PLATE XIII, fig. 3.)
The exercise is concluded by bringing it to its original position in front.
These exercises cannot be performed in all their different movements with promptitude and regularity without many trials and repetitions. Their tendency is to confirm the good position and the flexibility of the shoulders, produced by the extension motions.


THIS instrument is one of the oldest used in gymnastics. It may be seen in the Latin work of Mercurialis de Arte Gymnastica; and though its form was not precisely the same as at present, the result produced was similar. It has been long in use in England, where it enters into the school exercise of most seminaries for the instruction of ladies.
For children from six to ten years of age, dumbbells should not weigh more than from three to four pounds each; and for children from ten to fifteen years of age, they may weigh from four to six pounds each.To use dumb-bells with all the advantage they admit of, the young person should stand in the fundamental position already described.

To use dumb-bells with all the advantage they admit of, the young person should stand in the fundamental position already described.

To obtain the first position, the hands and the dumb-bells are, by a slight rotatory movement of the arm outward and backward, brought behind the lower part of the body, so as to make the two extremities of the dumb-bells next to the little fingers touch each other.

The fingers in this case touch the muscles of the hips, and the back of the hand is outward.—(See PLATE XIV, Fig. 1.)

In the first exercise from this position, a regular motion is commenced, which consists in giving to the depending and extended arms, at the same time, a circular and rotatory movement, forwards and inwards, to the front of the body, so that the dumb-bells perform each a semicircle, (See PLATE XIV, Fig. 2,) making a complete circle between them, but with this difference in position, that when they are behind, they touch at the exterior extremities, or those on the side of the little finger, and when they are in front of the thighs, they touch at the other extremities.


In the second exercise, —from the same position, the heads are raised together towards the front and middle of the chest, the approximated, so that the ball on the thumb-side of the one dumb-bell may touch that of the other.— (See PLATE XIV, fig. 3.) With the arms extended, they are then allowed to drop with sufficient force to swing them round the body to the first position. This is repeated several times.


In the third exercise,– from the same position in the arms are raised above the head, and the bumb-bells are made to touch at their extremities, being kept in a horizontal position. — (See PLATE XV, fig. 1) The hands are then allowed to fall gently into the first position.


In the fourth exercise, the arms are stretched out straight from the shoulders.—(See PLATE XV, fig. 2;) and the hands are moved horizontally backwards (See PLATE XV, fig. ,) and forwards, the dumb-bells being in a vertical position.

This employment of the dumb-bells should not at first persisted in longer than a minutes or two at a times, but the duration of each succeeding exercise may be gradually increased.

N.B. Until the introduction of the Indian sceptres, of Indian clubs, this exercise was valuable, notwithstanding the inconvenient jerk which communicates to the shoulders. It should not be superseded by that exercise, and beneficial.



1st. A sceptre is held by the handle, pendant on each side, (See PLATE XVI, fig. 1); —that in the right hand is carried over the head and left shoulder until it hangs perpendicularly on the right side of the spine,—(See PLATE XVI, fig. 2);—that in the left hand is carried over the former, in exactly the opposite direction, (see the same figure), until it hangs on the opposite side;—holding both sceptres still pendant, the hands are raised somewhat higher than the head, (See PLATE XVI, fig. 3);—with the sceptres in the same position, both arms are extended outward and backward, (See PLATE XVII, fig. 3);—they are, lastly, dropped into the first position.—All this is done slowly.

2d. Commencing from the same position, the ends of both sceptres are swung upward until they are held, vertically and side by side, at arms length, in front of the body, the hands being as high as the shoulders, (see PLATE XVII, fig. 1);—they are next carried in the same position, at arms length, and on the same level, as far backward as possible, (see PLATE XVII, fig. 2);—each is then dropped backward until it hangs vertically downward, (see PLATE XVII, fig. 3);—and this exercise ends as the first. Previous, however, to dropping the sceptres backwards, it greatly improves this exercise, by a turn of the wrist upward and backward, to carry the sceptres into a horizontal position behind the shoulders, so that if long enough, their ends would touch, (see PLATE XVIII, fig 1) —next, by a turn of the wrist outward and downward, to carry them horizontally outward, (see PLATE XVIII, fig. 2)—then by a turn of the wrist upward and forward, to carry them into a horizontal position before the breast, (see PLATE XVIII, fig. 3); —again, to carry them horizontally outward; —and, finally, to drop them backwards; and thence to the first position. —All this is done slowly.

3d. The sceptres are to be swung by the sides, first separately, and then together, exactly as the hands were in the last extension motion.


1st. The sceptres are held upright in front of the body, the elbows being near the hanches, and the forearms horizontal, (see PLATE XIX, fig. 1):—the sceptre in the right hand is then carried over the head and left shoulder, (see PLATE XIX, fig. 2,) dropping as low as possible behind, (see PLATE XIX, fig. 3,) and returning to its first position;—the same is done with the left hand;—then with the right;—and so on with each alternately.—All this is performed with a swinging motion, so that the end of each sceptre describes a circle which commences before the head, descends obliquely backward, and ascends again.

2d. After carrying the sceptre in the right hand from the same position around the head and left shoulder, as already described, it is stretched horizontally outward by the extended arm, (see PLATE XX, fig. 1); — and thence returned to the first position;—the same is then done with the left hand;—and so on with each alternately.—The swing is here broken by the lateral extension.

3d. The sceptres, held chiefly between the thumb and first and second fingers, rest on the fronts of the arms extended downward and slightly forward, and reach somewhat obliquely from the thumb and now inner side of the hands, of which the backs are turned forward, to the outsides of the shoulders, (see PLATE XX, Jig. 2);—that held in the right hand is then thrown over the shoulder and hangs downward behind it, while the whole of that side of the body is turned forward, the back and neck bent, so that the chin is raised and the chest thrown upward, (see PLATE XX, Jig. 3), and, as the body is again turned to the front, that sceptre is drawn over the shoulder and brought to its first position;—at the moment in which the body reaches the front, however, the same begins to be done with.the left hand;—and so on with each alternately.

4th, This differs from the second only in this respect, that the arms no longer act distinctly, but together; their motions being blended by the left commencing as soon as the right has made its circle round the head, and forming its own circle while the right is extending, and so on with regard to each.—This explanation and a reference to the description and plates illustrating the first and second exercise, make this quite plain.

5th. This differs from the third chiefly in this, that the arms no longer act distinctly, but together; both sceptres, however, being kept down until the lateral turn is complete (See PLATE XXI, fig. 1), both being then thrown over the shoulders at once, with the back and neck bent, (See PLATE XXI, fig. 2), and both returning gradually (See PLATE XXI, fig. 3) over the shoulders as the body passes to the opposite side.

6th. This is an exercise in which the lady crosses the apartment from side to side. The first exercise is here performed once with each arm, commencing with the arm of the side towards which the freer space permits her most readily to go. (See description and plates illustrating the first Exercise.) Supposing this to be to the right of her first position,—on finishing the second circle of the first exercise, namely that with the left arm, and bringing it in front, both sceptres, being thrown to the right side, (See PLATE XXII, Jig. 1,) are swung with extended arms to the left, sweeping in a circle downward in front of the feet, (See PLATE XXII, Jig. 2,) of which the left being at that moment lifted to perform a wheel backward upon the right toe, the face is turned opposite to its first direction, ground is gained by the left foot placing itself toward what was originally the right side, and the ends of the sceptres, without the slightest pause, continue their sweep upward to their first position, (See PLATE XXII, Jig. 3.) The same is only repeated; the lady remembering always to commence with the arm of the side to which she means to advance.




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A New England Farmer’s Calendar from 1834

I miss posting on my blog! So on this icy, homebound January morning, I decided to do something about it. I didn’t know what I wanted to post about, so I opened Google Books and typed a phrase just to see what came up. I found The Complete Farmer and Rural Economist: Containing a Compendious Epitome of the Most Important Branches of Agriculture and Rural Economy, published in Boston in 1834. I almost passed up this book, but then I saw the chapter “Farmer’s Calendar.” I was drawn to this section because several times in the process of writing a book, I’ve had to research when crops were harvested or when certain flowers bloomed. I’m thinking writers in the vein of Little Women might find this book useful.

 The monthly sections refer to the pages in the book for further reference. I’ve kept the page numbers, but I’m not going to link every one of them because I’m lazy.



The following Calendar is intended merely as an agricultural prompter, noting that certain kinds of work should be performed about the time in the year specified at the head of each article. The figures refer to the pages in this little volume, in which farther directions may be found relative to the operations which the season in general demands from the diligent, correct and careful cultivator.

The directions in the following pages are intended for the New England States, or about the latitude of 42° N., and the vicinity, or a small elevation above the sea. Allowance, however, should be made for height above the sea, as well as for situation north or south of any particular latitude. But we believe it not possible to state with any near approach to precision, what such allowance should be. The nature of the soil, the aspect, the exposure, the forwardness or backwardness, or what may be styled the general character of the season, are all to be regarded. We will, therefore, not claim precision, where accuracy is not attainable. ‘Kalendars,’ as Loudon has well observed, ‘ should be considered as remembrancers, never as directories.’


Stock. If cattle are fed with straw, it should be done with necessary attentions and limitations. The celebrated Arthur Young observed that ‘the best farmers in Norfolk are generally agreed that cattle should eat no straw, unless it be cut into chaff mixed with hay; but, on the contrary, that they should be fed with something better, and have the straw thrown under them to be trodden into dung:’ and I am much inclined to believe, that in most, if not in all cases, this maxim will prove a just one. See that your cows are of the best breed. Page 40. Give them roots as well as hay, and they will give you more than an equivalent in milk, for their extra keep. Pages 41,42. Provide pure water for your milch cows, and not oblige them to go a mile more or less after it, manuring the high way, and running the gauntlet of dogs, teams, the horse and his rider, the sleigh and its driver, with more annoyances than Buonaparte met with in his retreat from Moscow. See also that the master-beasts do not tyrannize over their weaker brethren, and if any are inclined to domineer, take them into close custody, and deprive them of the liberty of the yard, till they will give indemnity for the past, and security for the future. Cut or chaff your hay, straw, corn tops, bottoms, &c, with one of Willis’s or some other straw cutter, to be found at Newell’s Agricultural Warehouse, No. 52, North Market Street, Boston, or some other place. You may also make use of Col. Jaques’ mixture, (p. 50,) without charge for the prescription. If you give your cows good hay, roots, and comfortable lodging, you may make as good butter in winter as in summer, and become rich by sending to market the product of your dairy. Pages 53, 54, 89, 8tc.


Attend particularly to cows which have calved, or are about to calve, as well as to their offspring. You know, or should know, what time your cows may be expected to produce their young, by means pointed out, page 44, where you may find a recipe for those cows which need to be doctored, that they may stop giving milk. You will find observations on rearing and fattening calves, pages 56, 57, &c, to p. 63. Your ewes and lambs will now require that care and attention which is indispensable to make sheep husbandry profitable. Page 22. The way to doctor lambs to advantage is to give good food, and a plenty of it to their mothers. Half a gill of Indian corn a day to each ewe before yeaning, and about two quarts per day of potatoes, turnips, or other roots, when they have lambs to nurse, will make your sheep and lambs healthy, as well as their owner wealthy. But if you half starve your sheep, you will quite kill your lambs. You will continue to cut, split, and pile wood in your wood house, till you have enough to last at least two years. It is very bad economy to be obliged to leave your work in haying or harvesting to draw every now and then a little green wood to cook with, which is about as fit for that purpose as a brick bat for a pin cushion, or a lump of ice for a warming pan.


You may sow grass seed either as soon as the snow is off the ground, or as some say in August or September. You may see the question relative to the time for this purpose discussed, pages 23, 24. Be sure to use seed enough, say about twelve pounds of clover and one peck of herd’s grass [timothy] to the acre, p. 25. If you did not sow grass seed in autumn, or winter grain, you may now sow it, and even harrow it in. Though a few plants will be torn up, the grain will on the whole, receive benefit from being harrowed in the spring. Before the spring work presses hard upon you, it will be well to employ your boys under your superintendence to train your steers or calves and colts to the yoke, saddle, or harness, for which you may see some excellent directions by Mr James Walker, page 65. Top dress winter grain. Top dressings should not be used in the fall for winter grain, because they would be apt to make the young plants come forward too fast, and be the more liable to be winter killed. Page 186. Attend to fences. Page 213, and to drains. Page 294. By often changing the direction of your water courses, you may render your mowing even, and prevent one part from becoming too rank and lodging before the other part is fit to cut.


f7Ploughing. Light sandy soils had better be ploughed in the spring, and not late in autumn, lest they become too porous and are washed away by the rains and floods of fall and winter. For general rules on this subject, see page 278, &c. It is best to sow spring wheat as soon as it can well be got into the ground. The soil and preparation should be the same as for winter wheat. Page 112. Sow barley, as soon as the ground is sufficiently dry. Page 142. Sow oats. Page 139. Spring rye is cultivated in the same manner as-winter rye. Page 130. Field peas as well as garden peas make an excellent crop. Page 154. Beans are also highly worth the judicious cultivator’s particular attention. Page 159. Plant some potatoes of an early sort on early ground, to be used in July and August as food for your hogs, that you may commence fattening them early in the season. Page 272. Potatoes in small quantities at a time are good food for horses and oxen as well as most other animals, especially in spring. They will go farther if steamed or boiled, but when given raw they are useful as well for physic as for food, being of a laxative and cooling quality. It is now about the time to sow Flax, (Page 104,) and Hemp. Page 94. Every tool, utensil, &c, which will be wanted for the labours of the season should now (if not done before) be critically inspected, thoroughly repaired, and such new ones of the best quality added as will probably be needed. We know of no place where every want of that kind can be better supplied than at the Agricultural Warehouse, No. 52, North Market Street, Boston, owned by J. R. Newell, connected with which is the Seed Store of G. C. Barrett, where may be procured the best of seeds, both for garden and field culture.


Attend to your pastures. Do not turn cattle into pastureground too early in the spring, but let the grass have a chance to start a little before it is bitten close to the soil. If your pastures are large, it will be good economy to divide them as stated page 297. Cleanse your cellars, as well as the rest of your premises from all putrescent, and other offensive and unwholesome substances. Plant Indian corn as soon as the leaves of the white oak are as big as the ears of a mouse. Page 26. Not only Indian corn, but peas, oats, buck-wheat, and probably most other seeds are benefited by wetting them in water, just before sowing, and rolling them in plaster. Plant potatoes for your principal crop. Page 272. Sow millet. Page 145. Sow lucerne on land thoroughly prepared, and keep it free from weeds. Page 17. Declare war against insects. Page 315. The artillery for the engagement may be elder juice, or decoction of elder, especially of the dwarf kind, decoction of tobacco, quick lime, lime water, soot, unleached ashes, strong He, tar or turpentine water, soap suds, 8tc. Dissolve about two pounds of pot-ash in seven quarts of water, and apply the solution to your fruit trees, with a painter’s brush, taking care not to touch the leaves or buds. A lot of land well stocked with clover is wanted by every good cultivator for pasturing swine. Page 166.



Summer-made Manure demands attention. Most farmers yard their cows at night through the summer; their manure should be collected into a heap, in some convenient part of the barn yard, to prevent its being wasted by the sun and rains; a few minutes attention in the morning, when the cows are turned out to pasture, would collect a heap of several loads in a season, ready for your grass grounds in autumn. Dress your Indian corn and potatoes^ thoroughly extirpating weeds, and please to place a handful of ashes or plaster, or a mixture of both, on your hills of corn and potatoes. These substances are commonly applied before the first or second hoeing. But ashes or quick lime, (which is also an excellent application for corn) will have a better effect in preventing worms, if laid on before the corn is up. Be careful to save all your soap suds after each washing, as they answer an excellent purpose when applied to fruit trees, both as manure and as an antidote to insects. ‘Plaster or live ashes sown upon your pasture grounds, will not only repay a handsome profit by increasing the value of your feed by bringing in the finer grasses, such as white clover, &c, but will greatly improve your lands for a potatoe fallow, and a succeeding wheat crop, whenever you may wish to take advantage of a routine of crops.’


Hay-making. Page 286. Make as much of your hay as possible in the early part of the season, as there is at that time a greater probability of your being favored with fair weather. More rain falls on an average in the latter part of summer, or after the 15th of July, than before. If the weather is so unfavorable that hay cannot be thoroughly cured, the application of from 4 to 8 quarts of salt to the ton is recommended. In this way it can be saved in a much greener state, and the benefit, derived from the salt, is many times its value. Another good method of saving green or wet hay, is that of mixing layers of dry straw in the mow or stack. Thus the strength of the grass is absorbed by the straw, and the cattle will eagerly devour the mixture.

Harvesting. Page 294. The time in which your grain crop should be cut, is when the straw begins to shrink, and becomes white about half an inch below the ear but if a blight or rust has struck wheat or rye, it is best to cut it immediately, even if the grain be in the milky state. Barley, however, should stand till perfectly ripe.


Please to attend in season to preserving your sheep from the œstrus ovis, or fly, which causes worms in their heads. Page 239. This may be done by keeping the noses of the animals constantly smirched with tar from the middle of August till the latter part of September. In order to accomplish this, it has been recommended to mix a little fine salt with tar, and place it under cover, where the sheep can have access to it, and they will keep their noses sufficiently smirched with tar to prevent the insect from attacking them. Destroy thistles, which some say may be done by letting them grow till in full bloom, and then cutting them with a scythe about an inch above the surface of the ground. The stem being hollow, the rains and dews descend into the heart of the plant, and it soon dies. Select the ripest and most plump seeds from such plants as are most forward and thrifty, and you will improve your breeds of vegetables by means similar to those which have been successful in improving the breeds of neat cattle, sheep, &c. As soon as your harvesting is finished, you will take advantage of this hot and dry weather to search your premises for mines of manure, such as peat, Page 209, marle, Page 205, mud, &c, which often gives unsuspected value to swamps. Now is also a good season to work at draining. Page 294. You may drain certain marshes on your premises, which will afford you better soil than you now cultivate, cause your land to be more healthy, and the earth taken from the ditches will make valuable deposites in your cow-yard and pig-sty.


A correctly calculating cultivator will make even his hogs labor for a livelihood. This may be done by throwing into their pens, potatoe-tops, weeds, brakes, turf, loam, &c, which these capital workmen will manufacture into manure of the first quality. Page 189. You cannot sow winter rye too early in September. If it be sowed early its roots will obtain such hold of the soil before winter, that they will not be liable to be thrown out, and killed by frost. Page 130. It may be sowed early to great advantage in order to yield green food for cattle and sheep, particularly the latter, in the spring. Winter wheat, likewise, cannot be sowed too early in September. Page 112. Attend to the barn yard, and see that it has a proper shape for a manure-manufactory, as well as other accommodations, adapted to its various uses. Page 78. You may as well have a hole in your pocket, for the express purpose of losing your money, as a drain to lead away the wash of your farm yard. True it may spread over your grass ground, and be a source of some fertility to your premises, but the chance is that most of it will be lost in a highway, or neighboring stream.


Ploughing. Page 278. Stiff, hard, cloggy land intended to be tilled should be ploughed in autumn. Fall ploughing saves time and labor in the spring when cattle are weak, and the-hurry of the work peculiar to that season presses on the cultivator. A light sandy soil, however, should not be disturbed by fall-ploughing, but lie to settle and consolidate through the winter. Select your corn intended for planting next season from the field, culling fine, fair, sound ears from such stocks as produce two or more ears, taking the best of the bunch. Page 30. You will consider well, which is the best method of harvesting corn, and adopt one of the methods mentioned by Judge Buel. Page 29. If the husks and bottoms of your corn, when stowed away for winter, are sprinkled with a strong solution of salt in water, (taking care not to use such a quantity of the solution as to cause mould) and when dealt out are cut fine with a straw-cutter, they will make first rate fodder. Do not feed hogs with hard corn without steeping, grinding or boiling it. The grain will go much the farther for undergoing some or all of these operations, and if a due degree of fermentation is superadded, so much the better.


In many situations it will be excellent management to rake up all the leaves of trees, and the mould, which has been produced by their decay, which can be procured at a reasonable expense, and cart and spread them in the barn yard as a layer, to absorb the liquid manure from your cattle. Likewise it would be well to place quantities of them under cover, in situations, where you can easily obtain them in winter to use as litter to your stables, &c. They do not rot easily, but they serve the purpose of little sponges to imbibe and retain liquid manure, and by their use you may supply your crops with much food for plants which would otherwise be lost. Attend with diligence and punctuality to the wants of the four footed tenants of your barn, hog-sty, &c. Do not undertake to winter more stock than you have abundant means of providing for. When young animals are pinched for food at an early period of their growth, they never thrive so well afterwards, nor make so good stock. See that you have good stalls, stables, &c, page 243; cowhouses, page 44; a proper implement for cutting hay and straw, page 49 ; an apparatus for cooking food for cattle and swine, page 51. You may also carry out and spread, compost, soot, ashes, &c, on such of your mowing grounds as stand in great need of manure. Though some say that the best time for top dressing grass land is immediately after haying, any time will do when the ground is free from snow, and the grass not so high as to be injured by cattle’s treading on it.


Woodland. We think that cultivators may derive advantage from attending to the observations by the Hon. John Welles, relative to- wood-lots, the manner of cutting them over, &c. Page 314. We advise every farmer, and his help, &c, so to treat domestic animals that they may be tame and familiar. It is said of Bake well, a famous English breeder of cattle, that by proper management he caused his stock to be very gentle. His bulls would stand still to be handled, and were driven from field to field with a small switch. His cattle were always fat, which he said was owing to the breed as well as keep. Colts should also always be kept tame and familiar, and you may then train them to saddle or harness without danger or difficulty. Page 66. The farmer should obtain his year’s stock of fuel as early in the season as possible, and before the depth of snow in the wood-lands renders it difficult to traverse them by a team. You may, when the ground is frozen, cut and draw wood from swamps, which are inaccessible for cattle in warm weather. If you cut wood, with a wish that the stumps should sprout, let it be after the fall of the leaf, and before the buds swell in the spring. [See Gen. Newhall’s statement, N. E. Farmer vol. x, p. 230.] The Rev. Mr Elliot wisely recommended, when bushy ground, full of strong roots, is to be ditched, beginning the ditch in the winter, when the ground is frozen two or three inches deep. The surface may be chopped into pieces by a broad axe, with a long helve, and the ditch completed in warm weather. The farmer may, probably, hit on a good time for this work in December, when there happens to be no snow, and when it will not interfere with other farming business. When the season has become so severe that little can be done abroad, much may be done relative to farming operations, and other good works, by the fire side, in contriving the proper course of crops for each field, settling accounts, reading useful and entertaining books, and laying the foundation, by mental culture, for the usefulness and respectability of those who compose the Farmer’s Family.



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