Today, I’m going to be a bit global. I will excerpt from an American book and use ladies’ fashions from France and men’s fashions from England. That’s the beauty of being a lazy researcher with a blog. Enjoy!
From The Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s Etiquette: A Complete Manual of the Manners and Dress of American Society, by Eliza Bisbee Duffey, 1874
The first necessity in properly performing the duties of the toilette is to have a regularly-appointed dressing-room. This room, of course, in many instances, is a bedroom as well; but that need in no way interfere with its general arrangements.
The walls should be decorated with a light-colored paper, with window-curtains and furniture covers all in harmony. A few choice prints or water-color drawings may be hung on the walls, and one or two ornaments may occupy a place on the mantel; but it should be borne in mind that the room is to be used exclusively for dressing and the toilette, so that everything interfering with these offices in any way should be studiously avoided.
The furniture of a lady’s dressing-room should consist of a low dressing-bureau, a washstand, an easy-chair, placed in front of the dressing-bureau, one or two other chairs, a sofa or couch if the space admits, and a large wardrobe if there are insufficient closet conveniences.
On the dressing-bureau should be placed the lady’s dressing-case, her jewel-box, ring-stand, pin-cushion and hairpin-cushion. This latter is very convenient, and is made in the following way: It may be round or square, the sides of wood or card-board, loosely stuffed with fine horsehair and covered with plain knitting, worked in single Berlin wool with fine needles. This cover offers no impediment to the hairpins, which are much better preserved in this way than by being left about in an untidy fashion In addition, there should be a tray with various kinds of combs, frizettes and bottles of perfumes. There should be neither bottles of strong perfumery, such as musk or patchouli, nor hair-dye nor cosmetics, neither pots of hair-oil nor powder-puff nor rouge. A bottle of pure sweet oil, marrow or bear’s grease may be tolerated, to be used on very rare occasions hereafter to be described.
The washstand should be furnished with a large bowl and pitcher, soap-tray, small pitcher and tumbler, china tray containing two tooth-brushes and nail-brushes, sponge-basin, holding two sponges (large and small), and a bottle of ammonia.
On the right of the washstand should be the towel-rack, on which should be found one fine and two coarse towels and two more very coarse huckaback or Turkish towels. Beneath the washstand should be placed the foot-bath.
On the wall should be hooks and pegs at convenient distances, from which maybe suspended sacques, dressing-gowns, dresses about to be worn, or any other article of general or immediate use.
The various articles of a lady’s apparel—dresses, skirts, crinolines, etc.—should be hung neatly away in the closet or wardrobe. The underclothing should be folded and placed in an orderly manner in the drawers of the dressing-bureau. The finer dresses are kept in better order if folded smoothly and laid on shelves instead of being hung up.
The appointments of a gentleman’s dressing-room are similar in most respects to those of the lady’s dressing-room, the differences being in trifling matters.
A gentleman’s wardrobe need not be so large as a lady’s, but it should be well supplied with drawers to contain pantaloons and vests neatly folded. Indeed, no gentleman who wishes to make a tidy appearance will ever hang up these articles.
The pegs and hooks in a gentleman’s dressing-room are for the convenience of articles of a gentleman’s toilet corresponding with those occupying the same place in the lady’s room.
A gentleman’s dressing-bureau should contain the articles used in a gentleman’s toilet — razors, shaving-brush, shaving-soap and a small tin pot for hot water, together with packages of paper, on which to wipe razors. Cheap razors are a mistake, as they soon lose their edge. A good razor requires no strop. It has been suggested as an excellent plan to have a case of seven razors — one for each day in the week—so that they are all equally used.
A boot-stand, on which all the boots and shoes should be arranged in regular order, with bootjacks and boot-hooks, is a necessary adjunct to the gentleman’s dressing-room.
A couple of hair gloves, with a flesh-brush, may be added to the toilet appurtenances.
In most of our city houses there is a separate bath-room with hot and cold water, but country houses have not always this convenience. A substitute for the bath-room is a large piece of oilcloth, which can be laid upon the floor of the ordinary dressing-room. Upon this may be placed the bath-tub or basin.
There are various kinds of baths, both hot and cold—the shower-bath, the douche, the hip-bath and the sponge-bath.
Only the most vigorous constitutions can endure the shower-bath, therefore it cannot be recommended for indiscriminate use.
A douche or hip-bath may be taken every morning, winter and summer, with the temperature of the water suited to the endurance of the individual. In summer a second or sponge-bath may be taken on retiring.
We do not bathe to make ourselves clean, but to keep clean, and for the sake of its health-giving and invigorating effects. Once a week a warm bath, at about 100° may be used, with plenty of soap, in order to thoroughly cleanse the pores of the skin.
After these baths the rough towels should be vigorously used, not only to help remove the impurities of the skin, but for the beneficial friction which will send a glow over the whole body. The hair glove or flesh-brush may be used to advantage in the bath before the towel is applied.
Before stepping into the bath the head should be wet with cold water, and in the bath the pit of the stomach should first be sponged.
There is no danger to most people from taking a bath in a state of ordinary perspiration. But one should by all means avoid it if he is overheated or fatigued.
Next in importance to the water-bath is the airbath. Nothing is so conducive to health as an exposure of the body to air and sun. A French physician has recommended the sun-bath as a desirable hygienic practice. It is well, therefore, to remain without clothing for some little time after bathing, performing such duties of the toilet as can be done in that condition.
The trousseau may be as large and expensive as the circumstances of the bride will justify, but this expense is mainly put upon outside garments. There are certain requisite articles which must be supplied in a requisite number, and these all brides must have, and of a certain similarity in general character and make. They may be set down as follows:
Twelve chemises, six elaborately trimmed and six more plainly made.
Twelve pairs of drawers, made in sets with the chemises, and matching them in trimming.
Six fine and six plain night-dresses.
Six corset-covers, three finely finished.
Four pairs of corsets, one pair white embroidered, two plain white and one pair colored, the latter to be used in traveling.
One dozen pair of fine thread hose, one dozen of heavy cotton and one dozen of fine merino hose are none too many.
Six trimmed skirts and six plain ones.
Two balmoral skirts, one handsome and the other plain.
Six flannel skirts, three of them handsomely embroidered.
Four white dressing-sacques, two. of them of flannel.
Two loose wrappers of chintz or cashmere.
Six sets of linen collars and cuffs for morning wear.
Six sets of lace or embroidered collars and cuffs.
One dozen plain handkerchiefs, one dozen fine handkerchiefs and six embroidered or lace trimmed.
Walking-boots, gaiters and slippers of various styles.
Two pairs of white kid gloves, two of light and two of dark tints, with others of thread and cloth.
Of dresses there are required—morning-dresses, walking-suits, carriage-dresses, evening-dresses, one traveling-dress, one waterproof suit, one very handsome suit to return bridal calls, and last but not least the bridal-dress, which has already been referred to. These dresses may be multiplied in number according to the means and needs of the bride.
[Susanna’s note: Sorry, but I don’t have illustrations of mourning dress. Bad Researcher! Bad Researcher!]
MANY sensible people have resolved to abjure mourning garments altogether; nevertheless, as there are a still larger number who adopt it in a greater or less degree when they are bereaved of their friends, it may be well to recount the established rules in regard to it.
Deep mourning requires the heaviest black of serge, bombazine, lustreless alpaca, de laine, merino or similar heavy clinging material, with collar and cuffs of crape. A widow wears a bonnet-cap of white tarletan, known as the “widow’s cap.”
Mourning garments are made in the severest simplicity. They should have little or no trimming; no flounces, ruffles or bows are allowable. If the dress is not made en suite, then a long or square shawl of barege or cashmere with crape border is worn.
The bonnet is of black crape; a hat is inadmissible. The veil is of crape or berege with heavy border. Black gloves and black-bordered handkerchief.
In winter dark furs may be worn with the deepest mourning. Jewelry is strictly forbidden, and all pins, buckles, etc., must be of jet.
Lustreless alpaca may be worn in second mourning, with white collar and cuffs. The crape veil is laid aside for net or tulle, but the jet jewelry is still retained.
Lesser Degrees Of Mourning.
A still less degree of mourning is indicated by black and white, purple and gray, or a combination of these colors. Crape is still retained in bonnet trimming, and crape flowers may be added.
Light gray, white and black, and light shades of lilac indicate a slight mourning. Black lace bonnet with white or violet flowers supersedes crape, and jet and gold jewelry is worn.
It is poor economy to buy cheap and flimsy materials for mourning. Only the best black goods wear well without becoming rusty and shabby. Foulards make serviceable half-mourning dresses, either as wrappers or walking-suits.
The following are the rules laid down by authority competent to speak on these matters regarding the proper degree of mourning and length of time it should be worn:
“The deepest mourning is that worn by a widow for her husband. It is worn for two years, sometimes longer. Widow’s mourning for the first year consists of solid black woolen goods, collar and cuffs of folded, untrimmed crape, a simple crape bonnet and a long, thick, black crape veil. The second year, silk trimmed with crape, black lace collar and cuffs, and a shorter veil may be worn, and in the last six months gray, violet and white are permitted. A widow should wear the hair perfectly plain if she does not wear a cap, and should always wear a bonnet, never a hat.
“The mourning for a father or mother is worn for one year. The first six months the proper dress is of solid black woolen goods trimmed with crape, black crape bonnet with black crape facings and black strings, black crape veil, collar and cuffs of black crape. Three months, black silk with crape trimming, white or black lace collar and cuffs, veil of tulle and white bonnet-facings; and the last three months in gray, purple and violet.
“Mourning worn for a child is the same as that worn for a parent.
“Mourning for a grandparent is worn for six months: three months, black woolen goods, white collar and cuffs, short crape veil and bonnet of crape trimmed with black silk or ribbon; six weeks in black silk trimmed with crape, lace collar and cuffs, short tulle veil; and six weeks in gray, purple, white and violet .
“Mourning worn for a friend who leaves you an inheritance is the same as that worn for a grandparent.
“Mourning for a brother or sister is worn six months: two months in solid black trimmed with crape, white linen collar and cuffs, bonnet of black with white facing and black strings; two months in black silk, with white lace collar and cuffs; and two months in gray, purple, white and violet.
“Mourning for an uncle or aunt is worn for three months, and is the second mourning named above, tulle, white linen and white bonnet-facings being worn at once. For a nephew or niece, the same is worn for the same length of time.
“The deepest mourning excludes kid gloves; they should be of cloth, silk or thread; and no jewelry is permitted during the first month of close mourning. Embroidery, jet trimmings, puffs, plaits—in fact, trimming of any kind—is forbidden in deep mourning, but worn when it is lightened.
“Mourning handkerchiefs should be of very sheer fine linen, with a border of black, very wide for close mourning, narrower as the black is lightened.
“Mourning silks should be perfectly lustreless, and the ribbons worn without any gloss.
“Ladies invited to funeral ceremonies should always wear a black dress, even if they are not in mourning; and it is bad taste to appear with a gay bonnet or shawl, as if for a festive occasion.
“The mourning for children under twelve years of age is white in summer and gray in winter, with black trimmings, belt, sleeve-ruffles and bonnet ribbons.”
That’s all until next time!
March 29, 2012 – I’m appending a sad painting of a widow created by Edward Killingworth Johnson in 1877
26 Replies to “1870s Hodgepodge: His and Hers Dressing Rooms, Bathing, a Bride’s Trousseau, Rules of Victorian Mourning, and Many Fashion Illustrations.”
This post and your site are a delight! Thanks so much for sharing. 🙂
@Gillian. Thank you!
Lovely as usual though not my period. Imagine walking around with all those clothes we would swelter in Atlanta in the summer– or did the hoops provide a way for air to get under the clothes and cool one off.
The English fashion pictures usually include mourning. Not certain the French do.
@Nancy, I’m actually going to excerpt from a young woman’s diary during the Civil War in Georgia. I wonder if she says anything about the heat and clothes.
I originally intended to use some Les Modes Parisienne images from 1862 which was an English version and had some mourning clothes. But I realized the etiquette book was published later than I first thought so I had to find images from the 1870s. But these are glorious in their colors, so I posted them. I think the men’s fashions are just wacky.
I like the men’s clothes even if they all are buttoned up type.
The men’s clothes are fine. I don’t like bearded faces.
@Nancy, I don’t mind the beard, but those plaid pants and knicker-like pants don’t work for me.
Those Knickerbocker pants were sports wear. Golfers used to wear them in the 20th century. Even the plaid pants aren’t as bad as some I have seen. Such things go in an out of fashion. The cut of the men’s clothes was why all the aristocrats of Europe had to have their suits from Savile road.
Talk about weirs. That woman’s dress that looks as though she is trying out for Aida or is it Turandot?
@Nancy, Isn’t that an odd image? I wish I could read French, then perhaps I could tell you. I really need to use more American and English ladies’ fashion pictures…but they are kinda dull in comparison.
@Nancy, And I love Nessum Dorma from Tarundot, although I’ve never seen the opera. Do you like opera? We should go.
Here is Pavarotti singing Nessum Dorma. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdTBml4oOZ8
Two years to mourn a husband! Wow. I wonder why the Americans added a year to the English mourning times. As always the clothes were wonderful. I like all the dressing room and bathroom details. Great post.
@Thank you! I’ve bookmarked several books on etiquette in both in England and America. If I run across an explanation, I’ll let you know.
What with Victoria making a big thing out of widow hood and people not being certain they wanted widows to marry again, lengthening the mourning period probably made sense. The Victorians are known for celebrating death with elaborate and showy mourning clothes, elaborate funerals, and mausoleums.
@Nancy. Hopefully Abigail will get into this discussion. She knows much more about Victorian England than I. I did add a sad painting of a Victorian widow to this post. Scroll down to the bottom of the blog post to see it.
First, a question about the skirts mentioned under the section on Trousseaus — I assume that in this instance, “skirt” meant “petticoat?”
As for the effect upon Southern ladies of all those clothes — I remember in”To Kill A Mockingbird” Scout mentions that all the middle-class ladies in town retired to their bedrooms after lunch and spent the hot hours resting, emerging, as she put it, like little cakes frosted with talcum and sweat.
@Shay, I would have to think some of these skirts were petticoats.
I remember the scene at Ashley Wilkes’ ball at Twelve Oaks when Scarlet O’Hara leaves the napping ladies in the late afternoon and seeks out Ashley.
Thank you for the wonderful post! Here’s my 2nd translation of you (do you remember my writing about the 1st one?) I’ve added some more illustrations, but there’re all the links and so on. 🙂 Thank again, will continue, if you’re not against it.
I love the pictures that you added on your version! Please continue translating. This is great fun.
I´m making a research about 1870 fashion for a Phantom of the Opera manga I want to do, and I enjoyed your blog greatly! Thanks for the images!
You are welcome! Good luck with the manga.
I love the fashion illustrations you chose. They bring the essence of the era to life. The book you quoted from was written by my Great x3 Grandmother Eliza Bisbee Duffey. She wrote this book when she was in her thirties as well as many other books on a wide variety of subjects. She was a regular contributor to women’s magazines of the time with her short stories and poems. She was also an accomplished artist from a young age. While the fashion plates of the day may have portrayed women as beautiful objects to be admired (and we are!) women like her had so much more to offer.
Thanks for the kind comment. How wonderful to have such a fabulous great 3x grandmother! Do you keep a collection of her work? I adore old illustrations in magazines. As a historical romance writer, I’m interested in the “ideals” of a time. My characters are rebels, and I need to know what they are rebelling against. I also need to know how they dressed, but I’m always screwing up that part. sigh.
Notice that the first two women’s plates show girls wearing Mandarin jackets. Isn’t that special! I wonder if the Victorians ever bothered with authentically-Manchu-styled side-buttoned tops, or if they stuck to the front-buttoned Han-style ones. In any case, I’m sure these bold pieces are not for just any lady to traipse about in.
Mary Chestnut’s Civil War diary has a lot of information about clothing, mourning, etc. If you have not checked it out already, I think you should.
That’s for the recommendation!